Risk 360

Step-by-Step Guide to Scenario Planning in Risk Management

Scenario planning is a pivotal component of risk management, serving as a tool for envisaging potential future developments and their implications. This technique allows organizations to test their strategies against various plausible future states, anticipate possible risks, and design efficient countermeasures. While IRM’s guide on how to assess and treat emerging risks  covers scenario planning and horizon scanning, this article outlines a step-by-step approach to scenario planning in risk management.

  1. Setting Objectives: The initial step is defining the objective of scenario planning. What are you trying to achieve? Is it to identify possible threats, develop new strategies, or test existing ones? A clear objective gives focus and direction to the scenario planning process.
  2. Determining Key Factors: This step involves identifying the critical factors that could impact your organization’s performance. They could be internal, like changes in leadership or policy, or external, such as economic, political, or technological shifts. Using tools like PESTLE analysis can help you consider different aspects.
  3. Identifying Driving Forces: Once the key factors are determined, you need to identify the driving forces behind these factors. Driving forces are underlying influencers that are responsible for causing change. For instance, if technological advancement is a key factor, then the driving force could be increased R&D expenditure in your industry.
  4. Exploring Future Trends: The next step involves researching and analyzing how these driving forces could evolve over time. What trends are likely to emerge? How might they impact the key factors? This step is about gaining a comprehensive understanding of the future landscape and its implications for your organization.
  5. Developing Plausible Scenarios: Based on your analysis, create several plausible scenarios about how the future could unfold. Each scenario should be a detailed narrative that describes a potential future state, focusing on the interplay of the key factors and driving forces. The number of scenarios can vary, but typically three to four are sufficient to capture a range of possibilities.
  6. Implication Analysis: Now it’s time to analyze the implications of each scenario for your organization. If this future state were to occur, what would it mean for your business? What risks and opportunities would arise? How would your existing strategies fare? This step helps you assess the robustness of your strategies against different future states.
  7. Strategy Formulation: Based on the implication analysis, formulate strategies to manage the identified risks and capitalize on the opportunities. The aim is to develop flexible strategies that can be adapted as the situation evolves. Remember, the purpose of scenario planning is not to predict the future accurately, but to prepare for it.
  8. Implementation and Monitoring: After formulating strategies, the next step is to put them into action. This step involves making the necessary changes in your organization to implement the strategies. Once the strategies are implemented, they should be regularly monitored to assess their effectiveness and make adjustments as necessary.
  9. Regular Review and Update: Scenario planning is not a one-time activity but a continuous process. The scenarios should be regularly reviewed and updated to reflect the changing landscape. Additionally, the effectiveness of the strategies should be evaluated, and adjustments should be made as necessary.


Scenario planning is an effective tool in risk management that allows organizations to navigate the uncertainties of the future. It enables them to anticipate possible risks, test their strategies, and develop effective countermeasures. By following this step-by-step guide, organizations can make the most of this powerful technique to manage future uncertainties and seize opportunities.

Remember, while the future is unpredictable, with proper planning and execution, organizations can be better prepared to handle whatever it brings. Scenario planning encourages organizations to think outside of their usual planning frameworks, promoting strategic thinking and fostering resilience in the face of potential risks. By cultivating a culture of scenario planning, organizations can move beyond simple risk mitigation and towards a more dynamic and adaptive approach to strategic risk management. Learn more with IRM’s Global ERM Qualifications.


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