Future of risks


This world of rushing people has become so fast-moving, leaving no time to ponder about the World’s issues. The world is facing a lot and it is not something very recent, but it has been years now. Amongst Global warming, Climate Change, Loss of Biodiversity, Deforestation, Ozone layer Depletion, there is one more to be added to the list that is Ocean Acidification.

The world is at the edge of gigantic risk which may result in losing many of the benefits of the ocean. According to the first World Ocean Assessment, in 2015, Human beings have posed so many hazards to nature with their reckless activities like fishing, aquaculture, shipping, oil and gas exploitation, pollution, a greenhouse gas that has degraded the quality of natural reservoirs.

Oceans provide us with varied advantages which we generally overlook but when it comes upfront as a global issue, it appears as an enormous problem. Oceans are also responsible for absorbing carbon dioxide (CO2) and regulating the climate, but this potentiality of the ocean will also be curbed down and may be reversed in the coming future. The Oceans, also known as Blue Lungs, could end up being escalating global warming.

Atmospheric CO2 levels are estimated to be close to 600 ppm (parts per million), which is 50% higher than recorded in 2019 that is 410 ppm, according to the report by UNESCO. This has already crossed the upper limit put on global warming to restrict it to two degrees Celsius. Oceans are in a midway condition whether they would be beneficial for humanity as earlier or will turn against them, it all depends upon the human actions. A quite lot of developments have taken place in these years to examine the condition of the world’s ocean and its marine life, but still, significant gaps need to be filled in terms of proper implementation of policies that can help restore and sustain aquaculture.

The Rising Issue

The ocean absorbs sizable portions of warmth because of expanded concentrations of greenhouse gases withinside the atmosphere, especially from fossil gasoline consumption. The Fifth Assessment Report posted through the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2013 discovered that the sea had absorbed extra than 93% of the extra warmness from greenhouse fuel line emissions. This is inflicting ocean temperatures to rise.

Data from the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) suggests that the common worldwide seafloor temperature – the temperature of the higher few meters of the sea – has expanded through about 0.13°C in line with decade over the last a hundred years. A 2012 paper posted withinside the magazine Geophysical Research Letters discovered that the deep ocean is likewise affected, with one 0.33 of the extra warmness absorbed seven-hundred meters underneath the ocean floor. Modeling research posted in IPCC’s 2013 Report expects that there’s probable to be a boom in worldwide ocean temperature of 1–4-degree Celsius through 2100.

SOURCE– https://www.ipcc.ch/assessment-report/ar4/

IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report posted in 2007 envisioned that the Earth had skilled warming of 0.55°C since the 1970s. According to an evaluation through the Grantham Institute, if the identical quantity of warmth that has long passed into the pinnacle 2,000 m of the sea between 1955 and 2010 had long passed into the decrease of 10 km of the atmosphere, the Earth might have visible warming of 36°C. The ocean’s potential to take in extra warmness has shielded human beings from even greater fast adjustments in climate. Without this oceanic buffer, worldwide temperatures could have risen a lot greater than they’ve achieved to date. This is a vicious circle where Ocean warming ends in deoxygenation – a discount in the quantity of oxygen dissolved withinside the ocean – and sea-degree rise – because of the thermal enlargement of seawater and continental ice melting.

The Underlying effects of Ocean Warming

The risk assessment pointed out that the astonishing rise of sea levels, coupled with the increase in intense marine heatwaves and coastal urbanization, has become reasons for coastal erosion and flooding in coastal cities. Increasing carbon dioxide emissions have acidified the oceans, combined with warming and lack of oxygen, leading to the loss of biodiversity.

  • Increasing ocean temperature adversely impacts marine species and ecosystems. It can cause coral bleaching and damage to the breeding grounds for fishes and mammals.
  • Since the 1990s, the heat of the ocean has more than doubled, severely affecting marine life and ecosystems. The number of “dead zones” or regions with reduced oxygen content in the ocean has increased from more than 400 globally in 2008 to about 700 in 2019.
  • Approximately 90% of mangrove, seagrass, and marsh plant species and 31% of seabird species are now threatened with extinction. Marine debris exists in all marine habitats and affects the environment and marine life by trapping, ingesting, and drifting invasive species.
  • Overfishing is estimated to result in a loss of US$88.9 billion in net income each year. Human activities have introduced approximately 2,000 non-native invasive marine species, some of which pose a major threat to biosecurity and biodiversity.
  • It will impact human life as they will be deprived of the benefits derived from the ocean like food security, acceleration of diseases, uncertain extreme weather events, and loss of coastal protection.

Impact on marine species and ecosystems

Growing temperatures have imposed excessive dangers to Marine fishes, seabirds, and marine mammals which includes excessive tiers of mortalities, lack of breeding grounds and mass actions as species look for beneficial environmental conditions.

  • According to risk analytics, fisheries and aquaculture also are a supply of earnings for tens of thousands and thousands of humans worldwide. By changing distributions of fish shares and growing the vulnerability of fish species to sicknesses, ocean warming is a severe threat to meals safety and humans’ livelihoods globally. Economic losses associated with ocean warming are probably to run from tens to masses of tens of thousands and thousands of dollars.
  • Rising temperatures additionally influence flowers and reef-constructing species including corals and mangroves, which shield coastlines from erosion and sea-stage upward thrust. Rising sea tiers and erosion will especially influence low-mendacity island nations withinside the Pacific Ocean, destroying housing and infrastructure and forcing humans to relocate.
  • The upward thrust in seafloor temperatures is inflicting extra intense hurricanes bringing droughts and floods. This may have huge socio-monetary and fitness results in a few areas of the world.
  • Warming ocean temperatures are related to the growth and unfold of sicknesses in marine species. Human threats direct transmission of those sicknesses whilst eating marine species, or from infections of wounds uncovered in marine environments.

A Step towards Recovery

An ocean risk initiative needs to be undertaken to curb the huge environmental changes impacting our Ocean that are exposing coastal communities, cities, or even countries to much greater vulnerabilities.

  1. Limiting greenhouse fuel line emissions

There is a pressing want to attain the mitigation goals set via way of means of the Paris Agreement on weather extrude and preserve the growth withinside the worldwide common temperature to nicely beneath 2°C above pre-commercial tiers. This will assist save you the large and irreversible influences of developing temperatures on ocean ecosystems and their services.

  1. Protecting and restoring marine and coastal ecosystems

Well-controlled covered regions can assist preserve and shield ecologically and biologically huge marine habitats. This will adjust human sports in those habitats and save you environmental degradation. Elements of ecosystems that have already skilled harm may be restored. This can encompass constructing synthetic systems including rock swimming pools that act as surrogate habitats for organisms or boosting the resilience of species to hotter temperatures thru assisted breeding techniques.

  1. Improving human model

Governments can introduce regulations to hold fisheries manufacturing inside sustainable limits, for instance via way of means of placing precautionary capture limits and putting off subsidies to save you overfishing. Coastal setback zones which limit all or sure forms of improvement alongside the coastline can minimise the harm from coastal flooding and erosion. New tracking gear may be evolved to forecast and manipulate marine disorder outbreaks.

  1. Strengthening medical studies

Governments can grow investments in medical studies to degree and display ocean warming and its results. This will offer extra specific statistics at the scale, nature, and influences of ocean warming, making it feasible to layout and enforce ok and suitable mitigation and model strategies.

Certain actions like- increase in the use of renewal energy and sustainable fisheries, protecting coastal ecosystems, and restricting marine emissions can limit the carbon emissions up to an extent.


The report by IPCC warns that steep cuts to greenhouse gas emissions have become inevitable without which the fisheries will falter, the frequency of hurricanes will increase and the probability of flooding of low-lying areas will also escalate. The flooding events which now occur once in a century will turn annually in coastal areas and islands. Observing the trends and climate-changing issues, it is the need of the hour to come up with integrated sustainable management of coasts and oceans, navigated by science and technology. Ocean sustainability or ocean risk management is not an initiate of a single entity or one day, but it should be a collective move from an individual to a corporate body. For the purpose of the ocean risk index, we require an understanding of the ocean, joint research, sharing of information, and technology.






Blog Published By: Sakshi Mishra, Student Risk Committee Member


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